Teacher talk is the main method and medium for teachers to conduct theirclassroom teaching. It also reflects the process and approach of classroom teaching（Cheng Xiaotang 2009）。 Nunan （1991: 189） points out that in English classroom,teacher talk is not only a tool for organizing classroom teaching, but also a majorsource of learners' comprehensible input of the target language. The quality andquantity of teacher talk influence, to a great extent, the effect of English classroomteaching （Hakansson 1986）。
At the beginning of the 1970s, many overseas scholars began to research teachertalk. In the 1980s, most of the researches on teacher talk focused on teachinglanguage. In the 1990s,with increasing knowledge of language acquisition processand the role communication plays in classroom teaching, “Teacher Research” wasadvocated by some scholars （Edge & Richards 1998; Crooks 1993） and they havesystematically researched Second Language Classroom in order to further theirunderstanding of teaching and learning. They explored the existing problems insecond language acquisition and make an intensive study of teacher language andbehavior. In recent years, researchers have carried out a number of studies in Chinaconcerning the teaching and learning process in EFL classroom. However, there arefew papers about foreign language teachers, and only several papers involve teachertalk in English classroom teaching. There are fewer papers concerning teacher talk inminority universities. The author intends to provide reference for relevant researchesthrough analyzing and studying the characteristics of teacher talk in minorityuniversities.
Four College English teachers are observed in this study. The author builds thestudy on such theories as “Input Hypothesis”, “Interaction Hypothesis” and ''OutputHypothesis“. Naturalistic inquiry is adopted. The author observes and records theclassroom teaching process and hands out the questionnaires in these four teachers'classes respectively. Then the author analyzes the data of the questionnaire by usingSPSS 16.0 and transcribes the classroom audio recording. On the basis of the data,the characteristics of teacher talk are analyzed and described and at the same time,useflil and effective measures are proposed to help improve teacher talk in CollegeEnglish classroom.
The study investigates and analyzes teacher talk in College English class fromsuch aspccts as the amount o「teacher talk: the percent ol” displa\ questions andreferential questions respectively; teachers' interactional modifications and thepercentage of comprehension checks, confirmation checks and clarification requestrespectively; teachers' feedback and error treatment.
The thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter One is introduction. Researchbackground, purpose and significance of the present study are introduced in this part.
The second chapter is literature survey of the studies on discourse analysis andteacher talk which have been conducted at home and abroad. The definition ofteacher talk and theoretical foundation of the study are also involved in this part. InChapter Three the methodology of the study is briefly stated. A detailed descriptionand analysis of teacher talk are made in Chapter Four. The last chapter will draw aconclusion and put forward some suggestions for how to improve English classroomteacher talk.
Key words: College English class, teacher talk, teacher talk time,teacher's questions, interactional modification,teacher's feedback
In college English listening & speaking classrooms, language and other semioticsystems cooperate together to help students construct meaning. It can be reflected inthe design of textbooks and the use of audios, videos and images, etc. Thus, in thisthesis, the theoretical foundation is the theory of multimodal discourse analysis （MDA）derived from Systemic Functional Linguistics and Social Semiotics. The essence ofMDA is that other semiotic resources such as: images, audios, etc. are as important aslanguage in the meaning-making system. Visual Grammar, Acoustical Grammar andthe integrated frameworks of MDA are the main analysis approaches in this thesis.
Meanwhile, the results of the teaching investigation and the MDA for textbooksare the practical foundation for the multimodal teaching design, providing feasibleand effective suggestions in this thesis. According to the results, it can be concludedthat students have more or less realized multimodality in this course and argue thatmultimodality should be used in moderation; multimodal classroom activities, socialcontent, etc. should be brought into the class; teachers should remind students to payattention to images, fonts change and other multimodal factors in textbooks.
Therefore, when conducting the multimodal teaching design, attention should bepaid to: （1） Modalities influence each other with clear priorities in this course. （2）Words modality and acoustical modality are the primary modalities, while othermodalities are just used as tools to provide supplementary information and to improveteaching efficiency. （3） The chosen modalities should provide supplementaryinformation to make the learning material more easily understood and help studentsconcentrate. Then, on the basis of the above principles and the writer's teachingexperience, a sample teaching design has been worked out, then its' feasibility andeffectiveness have been verified by an empirical study with the method of interview.
KEY WORDS: multimodality; college English listening and speaking course;teaching design; teaching investigation; textbook analysis
With the development of globalization and the demand of the international environment,especially the increasing of the international trade activity, the third party testing industry, asthe one of the modern technology service industries, has become the best one of the serviceindustries with the fastest growth and brightest future. With the opening of the domestic thirdparty testing market and the support of national policy,more and more foreign and privatethird-party companies join the Chinese third party testing market, causing the industrycompetition is very fierce. It is an important subject for a third party testing institution tosurvive in the competitive situation by improving its services level and quality.
After seven years of rapid development, M company, one of the third-party testingcompany in domestic market,meets the bottleneck problems during the development. Afteranalyzing, this article found the main problems are related to service products and servicedelivery process, and tried to find a way to solve them through discussing core services,additional services, service TAT,price, process, people,productivity and quality and etc.
Through the SWOT analysis method and the analysis of questionnaire survey toanalyze the status of M company, and using Shostack's formula service model to build theservice model of M company. Combining with Lovelock's 8P theory of services marketing,the improvement methods of service marketing mix strategy are suggested in the Productstrategies,Place and time strategies, Pricing strategies, Promotion and education strategies,Process strategies, Physical environment strategies,People strategies, Productivity andquality strategies. Hopefully, the article can be helpful to other companies in the third partyindustry.
Keywords: Services Marketing ; The Third Party Laboratory ; The Third Party Testing
English is one of the world common languages; it is an important toolfor international communication. English is a public compulsory basic coursefor students of secondary vocational schools. Reading is an important process,which plays a very important role in students' English learning. Therefore, theteaching of reading is also very important. However, in English teaching ofvocational schools, reading is always the weak link in the vocational schoolEnglish teaching; the main reason is that most students? basis English is verypoor. They have no interest in learning English and their ways of learning areimproper. What?s more, most teachers? teaching methods are generally singleand relatively backward. Students can not actively participate in the classroomactivities, resulting in inefficient reading teaching. Then the teaching effect isnot obvious enough. As a result, the students' reading ability is very poor,which can seriously affect their comprehensive ability of using language. Thetraditional teaching of English reading in vocational school is ateacher-centered teaching mode and students in the classroom are passiveaudiences. As time goes by, the traditional teaching methods cannot fullyarouse students? enthusiasm, initiative and creativity. It is difficult to stimulatestudents' interest in learning, which leading the efficiency of reading class tobe reduced greatly.
In English reading teaching, using the modern teachingmedia effectively can represent the real situations, make classroom formsflexible and diverse, rich and colorful, arouse the students' multi sensorylearning, enable students to obtain knowledge and increase the channelsof information. The multimedia teaching creates a good learning environmentfor students, and cultivates students' interest in learning, arouse student'sinitiative, enthusiasm and desire for knowledge greatly. It has playeda positive role in inspiring the students? observation ability and practice abilityand improving teaching effect and teaching efficiency.
In this paper, combining with the characteristics of vocational schoolEnglish subject, we discuss the applications of multimedia in English readingteaching in vocational schools, hoping to solve some problems in teaching ofvocational English reading at the present stage and to improve the students'reading ability and improve students' ability of using the language.
Key Words: modern teaching media;English reading teaching;Teachingdesign