劳动监察执法问题及立法完善

所属栏目:法律硕士论文 论文作者:/
本篇论文快速导航:
第1部分:劳动监察执法问题及立法完善
第2部分:我国劳动监察执法现状及评价
第3部分:我国劳动监察执法面临的困境和难题
第4部分:造成劳动监察执法困境的原因分析
第5部分:完善我国劳动监察立法和执法的研究和建构
第6部分:我国劳动监察执法的障碍与对策结论与参考文献

  摘 要

  近年来,随着经济和社会的发展,社会关系日益复杂化。劳动关系作为社会关系的重要组成部分,其表现形式也随着经济形势的发展而日益多元化。社会生产是经济发展和社会进步的起点,因此直接诞生于生产过程的劳动关系必然会受到了社会各界的普遍关注。从某种意义上讲,劳资关系能否处理得当,将直接关系到社会的和谐稳定和经济的可持续发展。当前,中国正处于改革的关键时期。实际上,改革是一个各方利益进行重新组合的过程,具体到劳动关系中就涉及到了用人单位和劳动者以及社会利益的重新定位。实践中,用人单位处于相对强势的地位,为了追求利润最大化的经营目标,很多用人单位可能会刻意逃避其应当承担的社会责任,利用优势地位侵犯劳动者的合法权益。在这样的过程中,各种劳动纠纷不可避免,劳动者的合法权益不断受到侵犯。

  为了缓和劳动者与用人单位的矛盾,维护社会和谐和稳定,同时也为了顺应人权保护的世界潮流,国家做出了一系列举措以平衡劳资双方力量。近年来,中国的劳动立法取得了重要成就。其中,2007 年颁布的《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》表明了立法者在保护劳动者合法权益问题上的立场和决心。时至今日,中国的劳动立法体系已然初步形成。相对于立法上所取得的进步,中国的劳动执法工作虽然也取得了一定的成果,但是仍然存在很多问题。劳动监察作为劳动执法的重要组成部分,也因此受到了社会各界的普遍关注。

  从制度设计上讲,公权力介入劳资关系的手段主要有三种:劳动监察、劳动仲裁和司法裁判。但是,劳动监察与后两者显然有一定的差别,因为劳动监察在调整劳动纠纷时,享有更多的自主权。作为政府的重要职能部门之一,劳动监察执法依靠的是强大的国家行政权,劳动监察有着天然的社会影响力。从这个角度讲,劳动监察在维护劳动关系稳定方面应当大有作为。

  作为工作在一线的基层劳动监察执法人员,笔者却切身感受到劳动监察执法过程中面临的诸多问题。这些问题的产生原因是多方面的。一方面,立法不完善使得劳动监察执法手段和执法力度明显不够,立法者没有赋予执法者与其所承担责任相匹配的执法权限。另一方面,劳动监察权的独立性有待进一步强化,劳动监察部门作为政府的职能部门应当接受政府的领导,但仍应保持一定的独立性,各种不当干扰严重影响了劳动监察执法的公正性和及时性。针对实践中所出现的问题,笔者从多个角度对劳动监察执法过程中所出现的问题进行了反思,并且分析其产生原因,从一个劳动监察基层执法人员的视角对解决这些问题的路径进行思考。笔者认为,只有完善劳动监察立法,提高劳动监察的地位,保障劳动监察的独立性,才会使劳动监察更好地服务于经济社会的发展。

  关键词:劳动监察执法,现状,问题,对策

  Abstract

  In recent years, with the development of economy and society, social relationsare becoming more and more complicated. As an important part of social relations,the forms of labor relations appear diversified along with the change of economicsituation. Social production is the starting point of economic situation and socialprogress. So labor relations born directly in the process of production will inevitablybe put more attention by all circles in the society. In a sense, whether the laborrelations can be handled properly will be directly related to the stability of thesustainable development of economy. In recent years, China is just in a critical periodof reform. In fact, reform is a process of recombining interests of all parties. As to thelabor relations, it involves the relocation of the interests including the employers andworkers and society. In practice, the employers are in a relatively strong position. Torealize the objectives of making profits maximization, many employers maydeliberately avoid undertaking the social responsibility. And they may use theiradvantage to infringe upon the rights and interests of the workers. In this process,many kinds of labor disputes are inevitable. The legitimate rights and interests ofworkers are constantly violated.

  In order to ease the contradictions between the employers and workers, and tomaintain social harmony and stability, and to keep up with the world trend of theprotection to the human rights, our country has made a series of measures to balancethe strength of both sides. In recent years, the labor legislation of China has mademany important achievements. Among them, the labor contract law of the People'sRepublic of China promulgated in 2007 highlights the legislators' position anddetermination to protect the legal rights and interests of workers. The labor legislationof China has preliminarily formed by now. With respect to the achievements made inarea of legislation, though the enforcement of labor law has also achieved someresults, there are still many problems. As an important part of labor law enforcement,labor inspection therefore has received a widespread attention from all walks of life.

  From the view of the design of the system, there are basically three kinds to bechosen when the public power wants to intervene labor relations, namely laborinspection, labor arbitration and judicial judgment. However, labor inspection is quitedifferent from the other ones, because it may enjoy more autonomy in adjusting laborrelations. As one of the important function of government departments, the laborinspection enforcement depends on the national administrative power. Laborinspection has a natural social influence. From this perspective, labor inspectionshould go a long way in enhancing the stability of labor relations.

  However,as an official who takes part in the process of labor inspectionenforcement, I find many problems in the process of enforcement of labor inspection.

  Of course, there are many reasons for these problems. On one hand, the imperfectlegislation makes the labor inspection enforcement means obviously inadequate.

  Legislators do not give matching enforcement authority to the enforcers. On the otherhand, the independence of the power of labor inspection should be strengthened. Thelabor inspection department should maintain certain independence though it shouldaccept the governments' leadership. Various improper interferences seriously affectthe fairness and timeliness of labor inspection enforcement. As to the problemsemerged in practice, I reflect on them from multiple perspective, and analyze thereasons, and think about the proper path to solve these problems from the perspectiveof a labor inspection law enforcement official. In my opinion, only by improving thelabor inspection legislation, and improving the status of labor inspection, andguaranteeing the independence of labor inspection will the labor inspection make abetter service to the development of our economy and society.

  Key Words:Labor Inspection Enforcement, Current Situations, Issues, Countermeasures
 

  目 录

  引 言

  一、 我国劳动监察执法现状及评价

  (一) 转型期我国劳动监察执法的必要性

  (二) 我国劳动监察执法现实状况及评价分析

  二、 我国劳动监察执法面临的困境和难题

  (一) 劳动监察执法依据有待规范化

  (二) 劳动监察执法独立性有待强化

  (三) 劳动监察执法范围有待明确化

  (四) 劳动监察行政诉讼矛盾频发

  三、 造成劳动监察执法困境的原因分析

  (一) 政府部门利益纷争和劳动监察地位相对弱化

  (二) 劳动监察执法缺少相关部门的有效配合

  (三) 劳动监察立法与相关部门法的衔接不够紧密

  四、 完善我国劳动监察立法和执法的研究和建构

  (一) 重视劳动监察立法

  (二) 改革劳动监察体制

  (三) 厘清劳动监察与劳动仲裁的受案范围

  (四) 整合和强化劳动监察权

  结 论

  参 考 文 献

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